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科技英语的特点与翻译

推荐人: 来源: 时间: 2014-06-13 阅读: 8.25K 次
科技英语的特点与翻译

任何作品均有特定的文体,原文的文体不同,翻译方法也随之而异。试观察下列几个片断的原文及其译文
"It appears that you've got the offer of a very good job."
"A wonderful job."
"Are you going to take it ?"
"I don't think so."
"Why not?'
"I don't want to."
"听说有个很好的工作要你去干。"
"挺好的工作"。
"打算干吗?"
"不。"
"为什么不干?"
"不想干"。
摘自《刀锋》(The Razor's Edge )
这是小说中的一段对说,属于口语文体。其特点是:用词自由,句法结构简单,短句与省略句多,自然朴素,生活气息浓厚。在译文中进一步体现汉语口语的特点,省去主语"你"、"我";将英语的一个句子I don't think so.干脆译成一个字"不",显得简洁有力。
She was of a helpless, fleshy build, with a frank, open countenance and an innocent, diffident manner. Her eyes were large and patient, and in them dwelt such a shadow of distress as only those who have looked sympathetically into the countenances of the distraught and helpless poor know anything about.
那妇人生着一副绵软多肉的体格,一张坦率开诚的面容,一种天真羞怯的神气。一双大落落的柔顺眼睛,里边隐藏着无穷的心事,只有那些对于凄惶无告的穷苦人面目作过同情观察的人才看得出来。
摘自(珍妮姑娘)(Jennie Gerhardt),傅东华译.上面五十一个词的片断,就运用了十个形容词,占五分之一。"and in then dwelt such a shadow of distress"是非常优美生动的文学语言,译文保持了一风格。
MONTREAL-Clark Johns accomplished a spectacular debut for his NHL career tonight, the first score launching a four -point first period out burst,to lead the Johnson City High Hats to a 6:4 victory over the Montreal Teals and their eighth consecutive game without a loss.
[蒙特利尔电]在全国手球联赛中克拉克约翰斯今晚初试锋芒,引起轰动。上半场领先四分,首开记录。克拉克发挥中坚作用,约翰逊市高帽队终以6:4击败蒙特利尔市小鸭队,创造了连胜八场未负一场的战绩。
这是属于应用文的新闻文体,其特点是简明扼要,短小精悍,结构紧凑,笔锋犀利。上述这则电讯只有一个句子,却把一场球赛描绘得淋漓尽致,富于吸引力
The range of a voltmeter may be extended by means of a series resistor called a multiplier as shown in fullscale reading of the meter alone may be the multiplier 250volts may be required to move the pointer to full-scale, 135 volts across the multiplier and 15volts across the meter.
从上述的一段科技文章,不难看出其文体与修辞手段与前面列举的文艺小说,新闻报道等迥然不同。科技文体崇尚严谨周密,概念准确,逻辑性强,行文简练,重点突出,句式严整,少有变化,常用前置性陈述,即在句中将主要信息尽量前置,通过主语传递主要信息。
科技文章文体的特点是:清晰、准确、精练、严密。那末,科技文章的语言结构特色在翻译过程中如何处理,这是进行英汉科技翻译时需要探讨的问题。现分述如下:

一、大量使用名词化结构
《当代英语语法》(A Grammar of Contemporary)在论述科技英语时提出,大量使用名词化结构(Nominalization)是科技英语的特点之一。因为科技文体要求行文简洁、表达客观、内容确切、信息量大、强调存在的事实。而非某一行为。
Archimeds first discovered the principle of displacement of water by solid bodies.
阿基米德最先发展固体排水的原理。
句中of displacement of water by solid bodies 系名词化结构,一方面简化了同位语从句,另一方强调displacement 这一事实。
The rotation of the earth on its own axis causes the change from day to night.
地球绕轴自转,引起昼夜的变化。
名词化结构the rotation of the earth on its own axis 使复合句简化成简单句,而且使表达的概念更加确切严密。
If you use firebricks round the w

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